What is Vascular Dementia? Symptoms and Treatments

What is Vascular Dementia

Dementia is a term that often surfaces, encompassing various conditions affecting memory, thinking, and cognitive abilities. One such condition is vascular dementia, a progressive disorder resulting from reduced blood flow to the brain, leading to cognitive decline. With the aging population and an increase in cerebrovascular diseases, understanding this particular type of dementia has become increasingly important.

To shed light on this complex condition, this article will delve into the depth of vascular dementia, its symptoms, and available treatments. By grasping the underlying causes and manifestations of this ailment, individuals, caregivers, and healthcare professionals can equip themselves with valuable knowledge to enhance care, advocacy, and treatment options for those affected.

Overview of Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia is a type of dementia caused by reduced blood flow to the brain. It damages and eventually kills brain cells, which leads to problems with thinking, memory, and behavior.

Vascular dementia (VaD) falls under the umbrella term Vascular Cognitive Impairment, which includes a wide spectrum of cognitive disorders related to cerebrovascular disease. VaD is the second most common form of dementia with Alzheimer’s being the first. VaD accounts for 15–30% of all Alzheimer’s diagnosis.

second most common form of dementia

Differentiating vascular dementia from other types of dementia can be challenging, as the symptoms may overlap. However, vascular dementia is distinct in that it is caused by reduced blood flow to the brain, typically as a result of strokes or small vessel disease. The risk factors for vascular dementia include hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, and heart disease.

The prevalence of vascular dementia varies across populations, but studies suggest that it accounts for around 10-20% of all dementia cases. Incidence rates tend to rise with age, with older individuals being more susceptible to developing this condition. Early detection and intervention are crucial in mitigating the impact of vascular dementia and improving patients’ outcomes.

Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia?

Numerous factors have been found to increase the likelihood of developing vascular dementia. These include high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, obesity, smoking, heart disease, and a history of strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). It is important to note that while these risk factors may contribute to the development of vascular dementia, they do not guarantee its occurrence. Therefore, individuals who possess these risk factors should be aware of their increased vulnerability and take proactive measures to minimize their risk.

transient ischemic attacks TIAs

Regular medical check-ups, proper management of chronic conditions, adopting a healthy lifestyle, such as engaging in regular physical activity, maintaining a balanced diet, and refraining from smoking, can significantly reduce the risk of developing vascular dementia.

Symptoms of Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia presents with a wide range of symptoms that impact cognitive functioning, behavior, and psychological well-being. The severity and progression of symptoms can vary, depending on the extent of damage to the brain caused by insufficient blood supply.

One of the hallmark cognitive impairments associated with vascular dementia is memory loss. Individuals may struggle with both short-term and long-term memory, often forgetting recent events and having difficulty recalling past experiences.

Attention and concentration problems are also prevalent, making it challenging for individuals to focus on tasks or follow conversations. Language and communication difficulties can manifest as difficulties finding the appropriate words or expressing thoughts coherently. Executive function challenges, such as planning, decision-making, and problem-solving, may arise, impairing an individual’s ability to manage daily activities independently.

In addition to cognitive symptoms, vascular dementia can also cause a range of behavioral and psychological changes. Depression, anxiety, and mood swings are common, as individuals struggle to cope with the impact of cognitive decline. Agitation, irritability, and impulsive behavior may also emerge, straining relationships and making day-to-day interactions challenging.

As the disease progresses, social withdrawal and apathy can become pronounced, isolating individuals from their friends and family. In some cases, hallucinations and delusions may occur, leading to further distress and confusion.

Diagnosing Vascular Dementia

Diagnosing vascular dementia can be a complex process that requires a comprehensive evaluation. Healthcare professionals rely on a combination of medical history, cognitive assessments, and imaging techniques to make an accurate diagnosis.

When assessing a patient, medical history plays a vital role in identifying risk factors and potential cerebrovascular events that may have contributed to the development of vascular dementia. Cognitive assessments, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), are used to evaluate cognitive function and identify deficits in various areas.

Mini Mental State Examination MMSE

Imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans, help visualize and assess the extent of brain damage caused by vascular events. These imaging tools can provide valuable information to aid in the diagnosis and further understanding of the disease.

Given the complexity of the diagnostic process, it is essential for healthcare professionals to collaborate and utilize a multidisciplinary approach. Early detection and diagnosis pave the way for timely interventions and support that can improve patients’ quality of life and provide valuable resources for families and caregivers.

Strategies for Managing Vascular Dementia

Although there is no cure for vascular dementia, several treatment options are available to alleviate symptoms, slow disease progression, and enhance overall well-being.

Medications are commonly prescribed, particularly in the early stages of the disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors, such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, work by increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, helping to improve cognitive function.


Another medication used is memantine, which regulates glutamate activity in the brain, providing symptomatic relief and potentially slowing down the progression of the disease.

Managing vascular risk factors is also crucial in preventing further damage and reducing the risk of future strokes or vascular events. Lifestyle modifications, such as adopting a healthy diet, exercise, smoking cessation, and controlling blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes, are vital components in managing vascular dementia.

Non-pharmacological approaches can also play a significant role in managing the symptoms and enhancing quality of life for individuals with vascular dementia. Cognitive rehabilitation programs, which involve mental exercises and activities, may improve cognitive function and enhance individuals’ ability to perform daily tasks.

Occupational therapy and speech therapy can help individuals maintain functional independence and manage communication difficulties, respectively. Supportive caregiver interventions and counseling also play a vital role in equipping caregivers with the necessary tools to provide optimal care and support.

Enhancing Quality of Life for Individuals with Vascular Dementia

A person-centered approach to care is crucial in enhancing the quality of life for individuals with vascular dementia. Creating a safe and supportive environment that promotes independence and minimizes confusion is paramount.

Participating in mentally stimulating activities like puzzles, games, or reminiscing can help maintain cognitive abilities and engagement.

Designing an environment that reduces hazards and provides visual cues can help individuals navigate their surroundings more effectively. Labels, signs, and memory aids may assist with recall, reducing frustration and anxiety.  Establishing predictable daily routines can help individuals with vascular dementia feel more secure and manage their daily activities.

helping old with dementia

Providing social support and meaningful engagement opportunities also contribute to the well-being of individuals with vascular dementia. Regular participation in activities tailored to their interests can help maintain cognitive function and prevent further cognitive decline.


Vascular dementia is a complex and debilitating condition resulting from reduced blood flow to the brain. Understanding the underlying causes, multifaceted symptoms, and available treatment strategies is crucial for individuals, caregivers, and healthcare professionals alike. By collectively fostering awareness, ensuring early detection, and employing person-centered care, we can make a significant impact on the lives of those affected by vascular dementia.

Additional Useful Resources

  1. https://memory.ucsf.edu/dementia/vascular-dementia
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016875/
  3. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/292105-overview?form=fpf
  4. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9170-dementia

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  1. The Alzheimer’s Research Center of Albany, led by Alzheimer’s Doctor Richard F. Holub, provides comprehensive services including Alzheimer’s research, clinical trials, and memory disorder treatment in Albany, NY. Rest assured, we are dedicated to supporting you in your journey.

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Cherie Voise

Cherie Voise

Cherie Voise, inspired by personal experiences and driven by her role as an advocate, founded Voise Foundation to improve the lives of those with dementia. As the foundation's key content creator and blog author, she draws on her deep understanding of the disease, advocating for respect, dignity, and creative therapy avenues such as VST Music© and other programs. Cherie's heartfelt writings, fueled by empathy, resonate with readers, offering insight and stirring action. Become a part of this journey and together with Cherie, let's make a meaningful impact in the world of dementia care.